What Is Look And Feel Testing?

Look and feel testing is not a usability testing. The testing of the appearance and GUI aspects of an application is referred as look and feel testing.

Example of look and feel testing is given below:-

Taking example: - A website may perfectly well be working in one particular environment but always not be effective in other environment. This variation in environment can broadly be divided in into three categories:

1) Display Settings: - Different websites give different look and feel on different monitor and display settings.

2) Browser Settings: - A browser is software that always grants you to use, browse, or stuff the internet. Not only different browsers affect the appearance (look and feel) of disparate websites, also the different versions of the same browser cause the differences.

Considering example, the DHTML page looks different in version 4 of Netscape as compared to version 6 of the same browser.

3) Operating Systems/Platforms: - Apart from different display settings and use of different browsers, websites also behave differently in different operating systems/platforms.

There are ranges of platforms available in the world, usually categorized in PC, Unix/Linux and Macintosh, which cause the difference in the appearance of websites.

Conclusion:-
Look and feel testing looks similar to usability testing but on reality it’s not.

What Is Component Testing Explain with an Example?

Component testing is that in which we test those test objects which are separately testable as a isolated unit without integrating with other components (e.g. modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.). 

What is Component Testing?

Testing of separate software component is known as component testing.

Component Testing is considered as the Module Testing, because we are testing each module or component differently and effectively. 

Suppose there is only a one project which consists of 10 components and we are testing each component differently and effectively than it is known as component testing.


What is Module Testing


A group of component is known as module testing.

Component testing is fulfilled by programmers on the code written by them and with the support of development environment, such as a unit test structure or debugging tool.

Component Testing Example

What is Incremental Testing?

Incremental testing is a way of integration testing in which first you test each module of the software individually then continue testing by adding another module to it then another.

Its proper explanation is "An integration testing strategy in which you test subsystems in isolation, and then continue testing as you integrate more and more subsystems".

Incremental testing is partial testing of a sketchy product. The objective of incremental testing is to provide an earlier feedback to software developers.

Incremental testing: - A discipline approach of testing the interfaces between units tested programs as well as between system components.


Advantage of incremental testing:-

When you observe a trouble, you can discover the defect more fluently because you have a better idea in which subsystem to look.

There are two forms of incremental testing:-

1.Vertical incremental testing.

Under this there are two testing strategies

i) Top-down testing
You start by testing only the user network, with the underlying functionality simulated by stubs, then you work downwards, integrating lower and lower layers.

Begin testing from the top of the module hierarchy and always works down to the bottom using interior stubs to stimulate the lower interfacing modules or program. It tests the program of low level design. If low level design is not ready than it uses a dummy module called stub.

ii) Bottom-up testing
In this you start by testing the very lowest levels of the software using drivers, and then work upwards, as you integrate successive layers.

Begin testing from the bottom of the hierarchy and always works up to the top. It requires the development of driver module which provides the test input call the module or program being testing and display the test output. It tests the program of high level design. If high level design is not ready than it uses a dummy module called driver.

2. Horizontal Incremental Testing

Conclusion:-
We use stubs in top-down and drivers in bottom-up. If both dummy variables Stub and Driver are presented in the testing process than it is known as Sandwich Incremental Testing.

Why We Use Stubs And Drivers?

Stubs are dummy modules that are always distinguish as "called programs", or you can say that is handle in integration testing (top down approach), it used when sub programs are under construction.

Stubs are considered as the dummy modules that always simulate the low level modules.

Drivers are also considered as the form of dummy modules which are always distinguished as "calling programs”, that is handled in bottom up integration testing, it is only used when main programs are under construction.

Drivers are considered as the dummy modules that always simulate the high level modules.

Example of Stubs and Drivers is given below:-

For Example we have 3 modules login, home, and user module. Login module is ready and need to test it, but we call functions from home and user (which is not ready). To test at a selective module we write a short dummy piece of a code which simulates home and user, which will return values for Login, this piece of dummy code is always called Stubs and it is used in a top down integration.  

Considering the same Example above: If we have Home and User modules get ready and Login module is not ready, and we need to test Home and User modules Which return values from Login module, So to extract the values from Login module We write a Short Piece of Dummy code for login which returns value for home and user, So these pieces of code is always called Drivers and it is used in Bottom Up Integration

Conclusion:-
So it is fine from the above example that Stubs act “called” functions in top down integration. Drivers are “calling” Functions in bottom up integration.

What Is Functional Testing Explain It with Example?

Functional testing means testing the application against business requirements. Functional testing is executed using the functional specifications given by the client or by the design specifications according to use cases given by the design team. Role of functional testing is to validating the behavior of an application.


Functional testing is more important because it always verifies that your system is fixed for release. The functional tests define your working system in a useful manner. In functional testing tester has to validate the application to see that all specified requirements of the client whatever we have said in SRS or BRS have been incorporated or not.

Functional testing is always concentrating on customer requirements and whereas the Non-Functional testing is always concentrating on customer expectations.

Functional and Non Functional Test Cases

Functional test cases target business goals and non functional test cases target performance, resource utilization, usability, compatibility etc. Functional testing is a part of system testing.

Example of functional testing is explained below


Considering example if you are functionally testing a word processing application, a partial list of checks you would perform minimally includes creating, saving, editing, spell checking and printing documents.

What Is Regression Testing Explain It with Example?

When a bug is fixed by the development team than testing the other features of the applications which might be affected due to the bug fix is known as regression testing

Regression testing is always done to verify that modified code does not break the existing functionality of the application and works within the requirements of the system.



Regression Testing Example - Real and Practical 

Example of regression testing with its process is explained below:

For Example there are three Modules in the Project named Admin Module, Personal Information, and Employment Module and suppose bug occurs in the Admin Module like on Admin Module existing User is not able to login with valid login credentials so this is the bug. 

Now Testing team sends the above - mentioned Bug to the Development team to fix it and when development team fixes the Bug and hand over to Testing team than testing team checks that fixed bug does not affect the remaining functionality of the other modules (Admin, PI, Employment) and also the functionality of the same module (Admin) so this is known as the process of regression testing done by Software Testers.

What is Regression Testing with its Strategies?

Regression testing is achieved after the bug fixed, means testing the operation whether the fixed defect is affecting remaining functionality of the application or not. Usually in regression testing bug fixed module is tested. During regression testing tester always check the entire system whether the fixed bug make any adverse affect in the existing system or not.

There are mostly two strategies to regression testing, 1) to run all tests and 2) always run a subset of tests based on a test case prioritization technique.

When will we do Regression Testing?

Regression testing is the re-testing of features to make safe that features working earlier are still working fine as desired.

It is executed when any new build comes to QA, which has bug fixes in it or during releasing cycles (Alpha, Beta or GA) to originate always the endurance of product.

Conclusion:

Regression testing will be conducted after any bug fixed or any functionality changed.

What Is Sanity Testing Explain It with Example?

Sanity Testing is the subset of Regression Testing and it is performed when we do not have enough time for doing testing.

Sanity testing is the surface level testing where QA engineer verifies that all the menus, functions, commands available in the product and project are working fine.


Sanity Testing Example

For Example in a project there are five modules like login page, home page, user detail page, new user creation, and task creation etc. So we have the bug in login page like on login page username field accepts the less than six alpha-numeric characters which are against the requirements as in requirements it is specified that username should not be below than six characters but as username accepts the less than six characters it is the bug.

What Is Smoke Testing Explain It with Example?

Smoke testing is the surface level testing to certify that build provided by development to QA is ready to accept for further testing. 

What is Smoke Testing?

Smoke testing is non-extensive software testing, which makes sure that the most crucial functions of a program work, but not bothering with finer details because in smoke testing we only checks the major functionality of the software.


Smoke testing is performed by developers before releasing the build to the testing team and after releasing the build to the testing team it is performed by testers whether to accept the build for further testing or not. 

Smoke Testing Example

For Example in a project there are five modules like login, view user, user detail page, new user creation, and task creation etc. So in this five modules first of all developer perform the smoke testing by executing all the major functionality of modules like user is able to login or not with valid login credentials and after login new user can created or not, and user that is created viewed or not. So it is obvious that this is the smoke testing always done by developing team before submitting (releasing) the build to the testing team.

Difference Between Verification And Validation With Example?

Verification and Validation example is also given just below to this table. 

             Verification
             Validation
1. Verification is a static practice of verifying documents, design, code and program.
1. Validation is a dynamic mechanism of validating and testing the actual product.
2. It does not involve executing the code.
2. It always involves executing the code.
3. It is human based checking of documents and files.
3. It is computer based execution of program.
4. Verification uses methods like inspections, reviews, walkthroughs, and Desk-checking etc.
4. Validation uses methods like black box (functional)  testing, gray box testing, and white box (structural) testing etc.
5. Verification is to check whether the software conforms to specifications.
5. Validation is to check whether software meets the customer expectations and requirements.
6. It can catch errors that validation cannot catch. It is low level exercise.
6. It can catch errors that verification cannot catch. It is High Level Exercise.
7. Target is requirements specification, application and software architecture, high level, complete design, and database design etc.
7. Target is actual product-a unit, a module, a bent of integrated modules, and effective final product.
8. Verification is done by QA team to ensure that the software is as per the specifications in the SRS document.
8. Validation is carried out with the involvement of testing team.
9. It generally comes first-done before validation.
9. It generally follows after verification.

Example of verification and validation are explained below:-


Suppose we have the specifications related to the project than by checking that specifications without executing to see whether the specifications are up to the mark or not is what we have done in verification.

Similarly Validation of the software is done to make sure that the software always meets the requirements of the customer by executing the specifications of the project and product. 

Note that the customer and end users are concerned in validation of the software. 

It is also crucial to differentiate between end users, and customers. Considering example, if you are developing a library monitoring system, the librarian is the client and the person who issue the books, collect fines etc. are comes under the category of the end users.

Techniques or Methods of Verification and Validation


Methods of Verification

1. Walkthrough

2. Inspection
3. Review
Methods of Validation
1. Testing

2. End Users

Conclusion:

1) Verification and Validation both are necessary and complementary.
2) Both of them provides its own sets of Error Filters.
3) Each of them has its own way of detect out the errors left in the software.

Lots of people use verification and validation interchangeably but both have different meanings. 

Verification process describes whether the outputs are according to inputs or not, and 

Validation  process describes whether the software is accepted by the user or not.

Note:
If you remain have any problem regarding Difference between Verification and Validation than you can definitely discuss with me in comments section below. 

What Is Integration Testing Explain It with Example?

When individual software modules are merged and tested as a group than it is known as integration testing. Integration testing is sets between Unit Testing and System Testing.



Integration Testing Example

For example you have to test the keyboard of a computer than it is a unit testing but when you have to combine the keyboard and mouse of a computer together to see its working or not than it is the integration testing. So it is prerequisite that for performing integration testing a system must be unit tested before.

Black-box test case design tactics are the most typical during integration, although limited amount of testing of white box may be used to ensure description of major control paths. 


What is Integration Testing?

What Is Unit Testing Explain It with Example?

Unit testing is a confusing part of the software development process. Unit testing involves individually testing unit of code separately to make sure that it works on its own, independent of the other units. 

Unit testing is essentially a set of path, test performed to examine the several different paths through the modules. Unit testing is remarkably done by programmers with the help of Unit framework (like J Unit, CPP Unit etc. depending up on the language source code is written). Unit testing is usually an automated process and performed within the programmers IDE.

Unit testing is an action used to validate that separate units of source code remains working properly. Example: - A function, method, Loop or statement in program is working fine. It is executed by the Developer. In unit testing Individual functions or procedures are tested to make sure that they are operating correctly and all components are tested individually.

Unit testing is a strategy that utilizes the white-box method and concentrates on testing individual programming units. These units are sometimes specifying to as modules or atomic modules and they represent the smallest programming entity.


Unit Testing Example

Example of Unit testing is explain below

For example you are testing a function; whether loop or statement in a program is working properly or not than this is called as unit testing. A beneficial example of a framework that allows automated unit testing is JUNIT (a unit testing framework for java). XUnit [20] is a more general framework which supports other languages like C#, ASP, C++, Delphi and Python to name a few.

Tests that are performed during the unit testing are explained below:

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